Behind the Curtain: Zuffa's Finances Come Into Focus
(Pictures) resignation from the UFC
and subsequent speculation about the company's pay scale have
shoved Zuffa's finances back into the spotlight.
As a privately held company, Zuffa has no public reporting
obligations. The information that is made public is carefully
screened and released only when convenient to tout the growth and
success of the UFC brand.
As a result the company's financial status and business model are
largely left to speculation. But recent reports by Standard &
Poor's, one of the leading financial services companies in the
world, have provided new insight into the finances of the
undisputed leader of the MMA world.
On Sept. 14, S&P cut Zuffa's credit rating outlook from stable
to negative, but overall S&P reports revealed a business that
is still growing. While profit margins are down substantially due
to European expansion efforts, pay-per-view -- the company's key
revenue source -- is up 35 percent through the first half of the
year. Furthermore, despite more than doubling operating costs from
a year ago, the company remains profitable.
According to S&P, roughly 75 percent of Zuffa's revenues are
generated through the production of live events. Pay-per-view buys
account for the lion's share of live-event revenue with gate
receipts playing a much smaller role.
For example, although an average show might generate $2 million at
the gate (ticket sales), it generates at minimum roughly $4.8
million in pay-per-view revenue (assuming 300,000 buys and a 60/40
split between Zuffa and the PPV distributor). The company's
contract with Spike TV and assorted sponsorship revenues account
for the remaining 25 percent of revenues.
Last year Zuffa experienced what can only be described as explosive
growth. In 2006, S&P reported that the average buy rate per
event nearly tripled compared with the previous year.
Accordingly the company's EBITDA margin (EBITDA represents earnings
before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization; an EBITDA
margin is akin to a profit margin) more than doubled from the
mid-teens in 2005 to more than 40 percent of gross revenues in
2006. Dave Meltzer of the Wrestling Observer Newsletter reported
that Zuffa is believed to have grossed $190 million last year and
posted a before-tax profit of $76 million.
Entering 2007 Zuffa was expected to post an EBITDA margin of more
than 50 percent.
Pay-per-view buys for domestic events have increased 35 percent
over the first half of last year and total revenue growth is up 30
percent, but the company's EBITDA margin has declined more than 50
percent due to dramatically increased operating costs.
Operating costs have more than doubled thanks to production
expenses associated with two events held in the U.K. and an
aggressive marketing campaign to establish the UFC brand in the
U.K., the scale of which was criticized by the company's financial
officers, according to the Wrestling Observer Newsletter. As a
result the company's EBITDA as a percentage of gross revenues has
fallen to roughly 20 percent for the year thus far.
S&P began covering Zuffa earlier this year in anticipation of
the company securing a $350 million senior secured credit facility.
That number represents a term loan for $325 million due in 2015 and
a $25 million revolving credit facility (a so-called "revolver")
due in 2012. With the arrangement, according to S&P, the
company "will have few, if any, external funding requirements in
the intermediate term once the new capital structure is
It is interesting to note that the term loan was originally
proposed at $275 million, as of the May 22 S&P report, only to
be increased to $325 million by the time of the Sept. 14 S&P
report. This time frame coincides with the closing of Zuffa's
purchase of Pride's assets, though the significance of the increase
and its connection to the purchase of Pride is purely
Proceeds of the term loan were used to pay a one-time special
dividend to Zuffa's owners, the Fertitta brothers (90 percent) and
Dana White (10 percent), and to refinance the company's existing
debt. The amount of debt Zuffa refinanced and the amount it paid
out in dividends can only be speculated.
However, some comments in the S&P reports suggested that the
dividend payments could be quite substantial. The company has full
availability on its revolver, indicating that to this point Zuffa
has funded operations out of its normal cash flow. Therefore the
revolver currently represents little more than a rainy day fund.
Meanwhile, as of June 30, 2007, Zuffa's total debt outstanding was
The loans are secured by bank-issued securities as opposed to the
company's assets. In fact, Zuffa has very little in the way of
tangible assets. S&P expects meaningful recovery (50-70%) of
the principal in the event of default, placing the estimated resale
value of Zuffa's assets, namely its brands, contracts, and cash,
assuming a forced liquidation, at roughly $150-240 million.
As a result of these numbers, free cash flow is paramount in the
minds of the company's creditors. The company's credit rating
outlook was cut because of weak free cash flow caused by decreased
operating margins. Unless free cash flow improves, the owners will
be forced to reduce dividend payments to avoid a cut in their
S&P initially assigned Zuffa a credit rating of BB on May 21. A
BB rating reflects a company that is less vulnerable in the near
term than other lower-rated obligors. Yet the rating also indicates
that Zuffa faces ongoing uncertainties and exposure to adverse
business, financial, or economic conditions that could lead to its
inadequate capacity to meet its financial commitments. Bonds rated
BB and below are considered junk bonds due to the risk of failure
associated with the companies that issue them.
At the time of the May 21 rating, S&P issued the following
"The stable outlook reflects our belief that Zuffa's ability to
successfully market UFC events will continue to drive strong
revenue and cash flow growth through the next few years. We also
believe UFC has gained a solid niche following, which will add
stability to the company's financial profile over the intermediate
"A shift in consumer interest away from MMA or a shift to a more
aggressive financial policy could lead to downside rating pressure.
Conversely, if the company continues to drive increased interest in
the sport over the intermediate term while maintaining currently
healthy EBITDA margins and free cash flow generation, the outlook
could be revised to positive."
S&P also expected Zuffa "to reduce the scale of its
international UFC bouts going forward, with the intent to limit
potential losses generated by these events and return consolidated
cash flow to a level more consistent with 2006 results."
It will be interesting to see if Zuffa can meet this expectation
given Dana White's stated commitment to the European market place
and aggressive expansion plans. Regardless, despite the anticipated
cost reduction, S&P does not expect Zuffa to return to its
previous EBITDA margin of 40 percent because of "increasing fighter
costs and production expenses for domestic UFC content."
S&P's most recent report, on Sept. 14, concluded that Zuffa's
credit outlook is negative:
"Failure to improve the company's currently depressed margins
through more stringent cost controls and continued top line growth
or a shift to a more aggressive financial policy over the
intermediate term could lead to a downgrade. Conversely, if the
company can restore its previously strong credit metrics through
cash flow growth and debt repayment, the outlook could be revised
Still, credit outlook aside, the numbers behind the cut reflect a
healthy, growing business.
Adam Swift is the author of Payout: The Business of MMA.
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